Thursday, May 21, 2020
The High School Reunion The dreaded high school reunionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Everyone dreads going, but for some reason they go anyway. For others, (the popular kids) theyÃ¢â¬â¢re excited to go back and show off how wonderful their lives are. They show off their rich husbands and even the occasional high school sweetheart couples were there too. The story was different for Jenny. She was 30 and going back to her high school reunion still unmarried. All she could think was, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s just get this stupid thing over with.Ã¢â¬ Jenny walked into the gym where the reunion was being held. She grabbed her name with the table number and proceeded to her table. Lone and behold she was just peachy to have to sit with one of her old Ã¢â¬Å"best friends.Ã¢â¬ Jenny thought, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh barf, this girl again.Ã¢â¬ Mandy and her high school sweetheart Tyler were sitting as Jenny walked over to them. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my gosh, is it really you?! Jenny?! It has been so long since weÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen you, said Mandy. Ã¢â¬Å"Well you know, if you hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t gotten knocked up in college and gotten married so quickly we might have been able to see each other.Ã¢â¬ Jenny thought disgustingly. Instead Jenny gave her a big hug and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh I have missed you so much!! How are you two doing?Ã¢â¬ Mandy and Tyler looked at each other and gave a steamy kiss to each other. Ã¢â¬Å"We are doing just amazing. We have four kids and a giant house in the country. We also have some farm animals and even a dirt bike track in the back for our kids when they get older.Ã¢â¬ said Tyler. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh but enoughShow MoreRelatedDon t Judge A Book By Its Cover1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDonÃ¢â¬â¢t judge a book by its coverÃ¢â¬ was a saying during my childhood I heard every day. Growing up I was not the handsome boy you ever seen. I had a double chin, side rolls, and my stomach overlap my waistline. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where the name I received, Ã¢â¬Å"fat boyÃ¢â¬ came from was because of my appearance. That name for some reason made my father and brother laugh till tears come out. As I got older the double, side rolls, and my overlapping stomach started to slim and made me start looking normal size. As I wasRead More Coca-Cola Brand Image Essay818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmemories, it also fills you with memories of the Coca-Cola like Always Coca-Cola, the antics of the Coke polar bears, and all of the different ads that have represented Coke over the years. Just about every ad you see, as a consumer, will have tons of hidden meanings. Coca-Cola may not always intend to p resent the same hidden meanings, but will always intend for their audience to see a commercial and hopefully crave a Coke product. I found a Diet Coke ad that really caught my eye in the AugustRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Essay2875 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages1. MISSION High school is a very memorable time of every personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The older we get, the more we realize that we are who we are because of that special place and special people around us who are not a part of our lives anymore. We and our classmates have had a unique set of shared experiences with each other and these shared memories often binds us forever. This motivated me to organize a high school reunion for all my old class and relive o experiences once again by just getting together,Read More Graduation Speech: No Day But Today Essay965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa simple ceremony, it is the culmination of 12 years of work, friendships, and the little moments that still make us smile. High school was more than its name leads you to believe. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just school, it taught us a whole lot more than how to write a good essay, who laid the foundation for communism, and why we all should despise geometry proofs. High School taught us about love, life, work ethic, and how to be a person of substance, all of which might be more important than knowing whatRead More The Town that Loves Chicken Essay examples802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Town that Loves Chicken The part of Pennsylvania, where Fredericksburg lies is known as PA Dutch country USA (PA Towns 1). In this small town of Fredericksburg lies three chicken plants. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re anywhere in the town, you could walk to any of the three chicken plants within five minutes. This could be why Fredericksburg takes chicken so seriously. At Bell and Evans Airport in Fredericksburg , which is owned by a chicken plant, there is an annual festival that is anticipatedRead MoreGatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Quest For True Love Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHave you ever been in a situation where you have almost met your goal, but something in the way is preventing you from fully accomplishing it? Jay Gatsby, one of the protagonists in the novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, loses the love of his life, Daisy, due to years of separation and is trying to win her back. DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, Tom, however, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let her go that easy. Gatsby fights his way to get back the lover he wai ts so many years for. Preceding GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s risky quest, his main goalRead MoreEssay about Evelyn Waughs Decline and Fall823 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdistinguished novelist but his writing is notable because they satirise much that was bizarre in English society. His father was a publisher and his first novel, Decline and fall, was published in 1928. It is a satire on the preparatory school industry. It is in the style and humour of Charles Dickens. Evelyn Waugh achieves his purpose through exaggeration. He paints characters that are larger than life, just like Dickens. We also see this method used in todays television Read MoreDr. White s Dental Office Essay801 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages watching dozens of health professionals interact with one another. Many dentists caught sight of each other across the room and let out jovial shouts. A number of reunion hugs were exchanged, and hearty laughs resonated throughout the room. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to thank you all for making it out here today for our Give Kids A Smile event. Really, none of this would be possible without your kindness and dedication to helping the kids in our community.Ã¢â¬ Dr. White spoke with passion. Although at the time I hadRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On The Workplace881 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages High school sweethearts are meant to be joined for a lifetime. Their obstacles and fun times they have had, from first meeting, then home-coming dates, and finally prom. The thought of one day marrying that person brings chills upon them. At the end of senior year, both part ways with emotional good-byes, too soon to be reunited and then finally marriage. This reunion seemed to be a honorable and special moment, and at the time right. Two people sharing a passion and respect for eachRead MoreCultural Identity And Identity Essay : Who I Am?1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages I grew up on a dirt road surrounded by woods, mosquitos, and adventure. If you ever listen to the song Ã¢â¬Å"American HoneyÃ¢â¬ by Lady Antebellum, that was my childhoodÃ¢â¬âor really any country song about being a kid. The age old question, Ã¢â¬Å"Who do you want to be when you grow up?Ã¢â¬ , implies that we are never fully adult until we are fully who we want to be. As I have transitioned into adulth ood, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found that we are never really fully grown, but rather always growing. We are always changing, transitioning
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(148) " civil conflicts and instability precipitate high numbers of refugees who seek shelter in other states and terrorists can use this to find shelter\." Terrorism is defined by the U. S. Department of Defense as the calculated or predetermined use of violence or threat of violence with the intention of inflicting fear so as to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are mainly social, religious or political. We will write a custom essay sample on Countering Global Terrorism or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is a critical issue that needs to be addressed effectively as its consequences are many and harmful. Terrorism is mostly triggered by radical ideologies of hatred, oppression and revenge. Fighting global terrorism is not just about disarmament but it is a war on conflicting ideas or views. The US has been very keen in protecting her citizens especially after the 911 attacks that shook the whole world. It encourages or rather promotes freedom and human dignity as an effort of reducing the chances of people indulging in perverse ideologies. The root causes of terrorism are varied and they depend on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stand whereby the causes cited by the victims of terror for instance the US are different from those cited by the perpetrators. The US is categorical that its enemies exploit Islam to air their oppressive and hate ideologies. (National strategy for combating terrorism). Terrorists on the other hand argue that the US and other western powers are the major causes of the problems facing the Muslim world as a whole. In indulging in terror activities they aim at eradicating the western dominance and to ensure that Islam remains intact. The US however views this school of thought as a means of paving way for additional attacks not only to the US but to its supporters or allies too. They argue that their main aim is to exploit the major disparities between the Muslim and the non Muslim and take full control. The declaration of Jihads or holy wars to those with divergent ideologies is a clear indication of how Islam is exploited to spread radical ideologies. (Chase A, 2004). The root causes can be categorized as economical, social, demographic, political as well as cultural. Poverty is cited by some as a cause of terrorism but it is surrounded by divergent views. It can be opposed by the fact that most terrorists involved in the 911 attacks were from the middle class and in fact Osama bin Laden the leader was from an affluent upbringing. The war in Iraq was also viewed as a cause for terrorism. This ideology can be dismissed by the fact that way before the US had deposed the Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s regime terrorist plans to attack were being carried out. (National strategy for combating terrorism). Citing the war on Iraq according to the US is therefore a way of justifying terrorism rather than a cause of terrorism. Terrorism is also not due to the Israeli- Palestine issues as plans for the 911 attack started in the 1990s when peace talks were being carried out. Political alienation according to the US is a key factor promoting terrorism. In most cases the leaders of terror gangs recruit members from the states where there is minimal freedom of speech. Democracy is undermined and it becomes difficult to bring about change. (National strategy for combating terrorism). Such people are easy targets as they are very vulnerable to manipulation by those with violent and destructive ideologies. Terrorists are able to convince such people that the causes of all their problems are due to the western dominance. Past grievances and perceived injustices are made fresh in their minds making them internalize revenge motives. The use of propaganda, miscommunication and conspiracy theories keep the terrorism spirit alive in such peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts. Bjorgo in the Root Causes of Terrorism explains how terrorism is a by product of a long process of radicalization in the process or preparation for extreme acts. It takes time before terrorists can actually act. Although there are great economic and social injustices in most Arab countries with a reputation of producing terrorists, this factor has never been cited as a cause for the attacks. It therefore suffices to say that the social and economic injustices in the Arab world do not trigger terrorism. Illiteracy can also be cited as a cause of terrorism but it has been established that despite the rise in the literacy levels in the Arab world terrorism has increased. (Bjorgo T, 2005). This could be attributed to the fact that as people become more educated they can better understand the political, social and economic ills surrounding them and can therefore react accordingly. The notion that democracy would ensure the effective elimination or abolition of terrorism is not only an understatement but a great misconception. This is attributed to the fact that not all democracies are equally inclusive or respect the rights of the minorities. (Club De Madrid, 2005). In cases where the minorities feel that they are excluded from the main stream they can join hands to express their grievances which can be through radical means. Liberal democracies ensure that there is freedom of speech as well as tolerance of dissent which can be exploited for terrorist activities. Separatism, left wing and right wing extremism as well as religions are factors that can trigger terrorism in democratic countries. Terrorism within a democracy is affected by the level or degree of social, ethnic and political heterogeneity of the state in question. The more a society is divided the higher or greater the risk of terrorism. Transitional or new democracies are also at a greater risk of experiencing terrorism due to the fact that their authorities may not have gained popularity to be strong enough. In areas where a legacy of oppression is still fresh in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds the chances of registering terror attacks are high. Countries like Chile, Argentina, Spain, and Algeria are good examples of how terrorism affects the effective transition into democracies. (Club De Madrid, 2005). Weak states are more susceptible to terrorism as they can easily become hosts for radical conspiracies. States with prolonged civil conflicts and instability precipitate high numbers of refugees who seek shelter in other states and terrorists can use this to find shelter. You read "Countering Global Terrorism" in category "Papers" Club De Madrid in the International Summit on democracy, terrorism and security, Addressing the causes of terrorism explain how democratic states practicing stable democracies have minimal chances of terrorism from within but they risk terror attacks from without. Their actions abroad are monitored by many and they may trigger opposition which can be magnified through terror attacks. Actions that are viewed by other states as lacking International legitimacy can be considered as unjust and the radicals may view violent means as an appropriate tool to respond. (Club De Madrid, 2005). The US seems to have lost direction in preventing future attacks especially from the Arab or Muslim world. The use of war as an effort of curbing terrorism is not an effective approach. The war led to the death of many innocent soldiers as well as Iraqis and this creates room for the emergence of terror gangs to show their discontentment. The US ought to respect the sovereignty of other countries and stop imposing leaders on them. It should leave the independent states to carry out their operations independently instead of influencing the decisions they take especially regarding foreign policies. It should also stop playing double standards by applying the bill of rights without discrimination. (Rogers P, 2005). Should any terrorist be arrested they ought to undergo trial before they are arrested and should not be imprisoned before it is carried out. In my opinion, the US should stop the war in Iraq and try to address the allegations of their dominance and its effect on the people. Using forceful means may work in suppressing their enemies but this would not be successful in the long run. The US ought to let the people enjoy their freedom by exercising what they feel is best for them. What they think is best for the Arab world may not be necessarily be the best for them given the fact that the two regions are different in many aspects. The US has not been very effective in the fight against terrorism as there are instances where terrorists have been successful in their deeds without the US knowledge. Terrorists have been able to move with the times where they have taken advantage of globalization in their operations. They have been able to use the new media like the Internet to recruit new members, train them, seek funds as well as spread their propaganda messages without leaving any mark behind that can lead to their location. The use of the Internet has an added advantage in the sense that it is global in scale, easy to access, less regulated and less costly. The new media has therefore created a barrier in the successful fight against terrorism. (Hamm M, 2005). Terror gangs have become less centralized making it hard for the US to locate and eliminate them. Again, not all states in the world are US allies and some do not support their ideologies. Instead some find the causes of terror gangs justified and go the extra mile of supporting them by sponsoring their activities abroad as well as harboring them in their countries. Good examples of such countries are Syria and Iran. The strategies carried out by the US are not without criticism from their enemies. The war in Iraq is one strategy that has been used by some as a political weapon where it is cited as a reason behind the persistent terror attacks. In the fight against terrorism, military power, diplomatic, financial intelligence and law enforcement agencies activities are used. Denying terrorist the access to important tools or equipment needed to survive is a way of paralyzing their undertakings. When terrorists are denied finances and weapons they cannot carry out their activities effectively. The current counterterrorism strategies have been moderately effective in fighting terrorism. Advancing democracies is mostly cited as a way of fighting terrorism. The US cites this as a strong point in the fight against terrorism based on the argument that the lack of open systems where people can air their views is a reason behind the emergence of violent ideologies. Another approach used is the prevention of future attacks by terror gangs or networks. Terror networks are also denied the support of rogue states as well as the control of states that they are likely to use as a base for their terror activities. The US has also laid foundations to build the institutions and structures that are needed to fight terrorism until the bitter yet successful end. Other nations have been sensitized on the need to join hands in the global war against terrorism to a greater level where it is more than ensuring that justice prevails by bringing to justice the perpetrators of the 911 attack. These efforts have seen some nations change from being part of the problem to being part of the solution. (National strategy for combating terrorism). The US Patriotic Act has made a remarkable difference in counterterrorism efforts. The formation of the counter terrorism fund had a positive effect in ensuring that the Department of Justice had the required finances to promote their effectiveness and efficiency. (US Department of Justice, 2004). The Act faces much criticism from those who view it as a way of compromising with their civil liberties. However, the Bush administration has through the act have been able to increase their ability of sharing intelligent information which have been used effectively in the fight against terrorism. Laws have been updated to incorporate the changes brought about by technology. Increased surveillance has enabled the authorities to react swiftly to deter terror attacks. Surveillance in the public places which tend to be targets by most terrorists discourages them from perpetrating their heinous acts. (Michaels W, 2002). According to Mark HammÃ¢â¬â¢s report on Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups it is clear that most terrorists are likely to be involved in money laundering, bank robberies, theft of credit cards and document counterfeiting in trying to satisfy their needs for existence. The law enforcement officials can hinder the effectiveness of terror gangs by simply being keen in preventing the crimes that promote their survival. Curbing what may seem normal criminal activities may have spill over effects in the fight against global terrorism. It is appropriate that the US government invests in intensive research on the causes, effects and means of eradicating terrorism. The research would provide accurate information and the approach used to address terrorism would also be accurate. (Hamm M, 2005). Government officials in the immigration departments must also be keen in their operations. Terrorists must gain access to the areas they want to attack and if this is denied the chances of them committing their acts are minimized. Through their routine work, immigrant officials may deter terrorism in the sense that they can identify counterfeit documents of potential terrorists and deal with them before it is too late. (Hamm M, 2005). Routine border inspection can also identify terrorists and thus hinder their effective operations. Local police officers through their routine activities can curb terrorism. The media can play a significant role in determining the success of the efforts or policies adopted to fight terrorism. Media bias can have a negative effect and make the policies unpopular. A positive effect can be created is the media is willing to support the set policies. If the media intentionally ignored the vital information when informing the people of what the government is doing to fight terrorism then the policies might not be supported by many. The information created by the media can also be confusing or misleading paving way for criticism and consequently lowering the efforts made to ensure the success of Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terrorismÃ¢â¬â¢. The media has been used by terrorists to show the masses that they still exist. This is clearly evident in the self-declaration of international terrorists that they intend to strike. (National strategy for combating terrorism). This way their supporters and sympathizers are motivated as they can see that the battle is not over. Law enforcement agents must cooperate if the war on terrorism is to be successful. Effective communication must be enhanced so that the fight against terrorism is successful. With combined resources, expertise and intelligence then terror acts would be effectively abolished. The future war on terror is not bliss. Using war to prevent terror attacks has not restored peace and security and instead terror and grief has filled across the Arab world for instance in Afghanistan and Iraq. Many innocent civilians have lost their lives courtesy of the US policies. The remnants of the war can easily collude and wage war against the US as a way of revenge for their loss. The US is laying grounds for fundamentalism and extremism by sowing seeds of hatred which will grow into fruits of a new form of terrorism. (Daniel B and Simon S, 2005). The US should change its strategies as the existing ones are a total failure. Instead of putting the lives of many people on the spot the US ought to explore oil reserves in her soil or better still use alternative sources of energy if it feels threatened by the oil producing countries. Reducing its dependence on the Arab oil producing countries would be one way of their not wanting to poke their noses into the affairs of the Middle East as a whole. The use of diplomacy would also have yielded better results than the use of military force. War brought about the destruction of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy creating loopholes for bitter feelings that can be expressed through terror attacks. The US is slowly but surely losing its popularity across the globe. Countries that supported their policies have changed their stand. This has been attributed to the fact that some think the US war in Iraq is not just a war on terrorism but a way of ensuring their control over the oil producing countries and consequently maintaining her status quo as a world super power. Another major reason for reduced support is the fact that it has failed to honor the Geneva convections. It is known for not respecting the International laws by the imprisonment of suspects without trial as well as the torturing of others. (Rogers P. 2005). Critics also argue that thorough investigations were not carried out before the termination of the Saddam Hussein regime was terminated. Proper establishment that he had links with the al Qaeda and that he produced weapons of mass destruction ought to have been done before he was destroyed. The US is also accused of playing double standards where it supports oppressive and undemocratic nations like Palestine probably because by doing so it is at a better position. It should address the underlying problems affecting the developing countries. By doing so the developing nations would stop viewing them as being out to dominate them. It is illogical to argue that at one point in time terrorism will be a resolved issue. As long as the US policies are not approved or readily accepted by all and there is the existence of extremists then terrorism is here to stay. The rise of left wing terrorists also increases the extent to which domestic terrorism poses a threat to USA. These include extremists like the animal rights and environmental extremists. (Hamm M, 2005). According to my opinion the future position in the Ã¢â¬ËWar on global terrorismÃ¢â¬â¢ will be negative or unsuccessful. The strategies that it is using work to create more enemies and chances are that in the year 2015 these enemies will collude and react to have their voice heard by the whole world. Trying to control the Islam world will not yield a positive effect on the Muslim countries. Terrorists will have a strong point to motivate people to indulge in terror gangs. The world will become a more dangerous place to live in instead of becoming a haven of peace. The reduced cooperation with other countries to back the US policies is also a worrying fact as far as the global war on terrorism is concerned. Countries opposing the US policies increase the spirit of anti -Americanism and they can magnify their displeasure by supporting the terror gangs. References: Alston Chase. 2004. A Mind for Murder: The Education of the Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism. W. W. Norton Company publishers. Benjamin Daniel and Steven Simon. 2005. The Next Attack: The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting It Right. New York: Times Books. Club De Madrid. 2005. The International Summit on democracy, terrorism and security. Addressing the causes of terrorism. Volume 1. Mark Hamm. 2005. Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research, and Prevention, Part II, Cases 4 5. Retrieved on 18th June 2008 from http://www. mipt. org/pdf/Crimes-Committed-Terrorist-Groups. pdf National strategy for combating terrorism. 2006. Retrieved on 18th June 2008 from http://www. whitehouse. gov/nsc/nsct/2006/nsct2006. pdf. Tore Bjorgo. 2005. Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and Ways Forward Rutledge Publishers. Paul Rogers. 2005. Endless war. The global war on terror and the new Bush Administration. Oxford Research Group. US Department of Justice. 2004. Report from the field. The USA Patriotic Act at work. July 2004. William Michaels. 2002. No Greater Threat: America after September 11 and the Rise of a National Security. Algora Publishing How to cite Countering Global Terrorism, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
A paper which explores the issue of selfhood in several texts, especially William Shakespeares King Lear and Augustines Confessions. The paper explores several texts including The Confessions by Augustine, The Life of Saint Teresa of Avila by Herself, Petrarchs poetry, and Shakespeares drama King Lear and shows that all of these are products of societies in which the dominant religious ethos was Christian rather than pagan. The paper shows that although all the texts share this similar historical feature, fundamentally opposing views of the self (the distinction between outer and inner life) are articulated through the theological texts in contrast with the works of lyric and dramatic poetry. This Christian point of view, of the importance of the interior over the exterior, seems to at first be born out in Shakespeares King Lear. In the first scene, the king of the title is witnessed undervaluing the contribution of his youngest daughter Cordelia, whom honestly tells him how much she loves him, unlike his superficial and cruel daughters Gonoril and Reagan. We will write a custom essay sample on Selfhood in Classical Texts or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page King Lear is set in pre-Christian times yet was written in a Christian era. This might seem to validate the idea that pagan times valued the exterior, while Christianity values the interior. Yet everyone around and outside of Lear sees through his daughters, except the man himself, even at the very beginning. The king of France marries Cordelia without a dowry. Similarly, in the subplot of Gloucester, the man is unable to understand the treachery of his bastard son until he has rejected his true son.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Stalin and His Influence on Life in Russia essays Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union as a virtual dictator between 1928 and 1954. During the first ten years of his rule, Stalin introduced dramatic change to the Soviet Union in the areas of industrialization, agriculture, culture and education. While there were some benefits for both the nation and the people with respect to the consequences of his policies on industrialization and education, the impact of his policies regarding agriculture, and culture was overwhelmingly damaging to the Russian people, and consequently, the nation as a whole. Therefore, it can be said that between 1928 and 1938 Stalin had a largely devastating impact on the people, but a less damaging one on the Soviet Union itself. To a large extent Stalins transformation of the Soviet Union into a strong industrial nation had a positive effect on the nation. This was required as the Soviet Union was 50 to 100 years behind the worlds major industrial powers at that time. Stalins transformation of the Soviet Union into an industrial nation was achieved through the introduction of a series of five year plans designed to develop the Soviet economy. The first Five Year Plan was introduced in 1928. This plan required heavy industry such as coal, steel and oil to triple their output. Light industry including furniture, clothes and shoes needed to double their output. To facilitate this increase, electrical production was to increase sixfold. [Brooman, J 1988. p. 10] The enormity of this unrealistic task meant that The atmosphere of Russia became feverish with effort. [Baker, P, P and Basset, J, J 1988. p. 25] However, by the end of 1932, while failing to meet the required targets, an incredible increase in industrial production was accomplished. The output of oil, for example, increased from 11.7 to 21.4 millions of tonnes, the output of steel increased from 4 to 5.9 millions of tonnes, and the output of coal increased from 35.4 to...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
11 Facts You Should Know about Halloween The U.S. is a society of consumers, and an economy based primarily on consumer spending, so its no surprise that Halloween is celebrated inÃ consumerist ways. Lets take a look at some interesting facts about Halloween consumption, with data fromÃ National Retail Federations Halloween Headquarters, and consider what they mean from a sociological perspective. 171 million Americans- more than half the entire national population- will celebrate Halloween in 2016.Halloween is the nations third favorite holiday, but second favorite for those between the ages of 18-34. It isÃ less popular with older folks, and more popular among women than men,Ã according to a 2011 Harris Interactive poll.Not just for kids,Ã Halloween is an important holiday for adults too. Nearly half the adult population will dress in costume for the occasion.Total U.S. spending for Halloween 2016 is expected to reach 8.4 billion dollarsan increase of more than 3 billion dollars since 2007. That includes $3.1 billion spent on costumes, $2.5 billion on candy, andÃ $2.4 billion on decorations.The average person will spend about $83 celebrating Halloween.About a third of all adults will throw or attend a Halloween party.One in five adults will visit a haunted house.Sixteen percent will dress their pets in costume.In 2016 costume choices among adults differ by age brack et. Among Millennials, Batman characters take the number one spot, followed by witch, animal, Marvel or DC superhero, and vampire. The number one costume among older adults is a witch, followed by pirate, political costume, vampire, and then Batman character. Action and superhero characters are the top choice for children in 2016, followed by princess, animal, Batman character, and Star Wars character.Pumpkin wins the top spot for pets, followed by hot dog, bumble bee, lion, Star Wars character, and devil. So, what does all this mean, sociologically speaking? Halloween is clearly a very important holiday in the U.S. We can see this in not only the patterns in participation and spendingÃ but in what people do to celebrate the holiday. Early sociologist Ãâ°mile Durkheim observed that rituals are occasions upon which people in a culture or society come together to reaffirm their values, beliefs, and morals. By participating in rituals together, we activate and reaffirm our collective consciencethe sum of those beliefs and ideas we share in common,Ã that take on a life and force of their own due to their collective nature. In celebration of Halloween, those rituals include dressing in costume, trick-or-treating, throwing and attending costume parties, decorating homes,Ã and going to haunted houses. This raises the question of what values, beliefs, and morals are reaffirmed through our mass participation in these rituals. Halloween costumes in the U.S. have evolved away from the holidays social origins as taunts and mocking of death, and toward popular culture. Sure, witch is a popular costume for women, and zombies and vampires are also in the top ten, but the variations of them trend more toward sexy than scary or evocative of death. So, it would be false to conclude that the rituals affirm values and beliefs of Christianity and Paganism. They point instead toÃ the importance placed on having fun and beingÃ sexy in our society. But, what also stands out to this sociologist is the consumerist nature of the holiday and the rituals. The primary thing we do to celebrate Halloween is buy stuff. Yes, we go out and get together and have fun, but none of that happens without first shopping and spending moneya collective 8.4 billion dollars. Halloween, like other consumerist holidays (Christmas, Valentines Day, Easter, Fathers Day and Mothers Day), is an occasion upon which we reaffirm the importance of consuming in order to fit in with the norms of society. Thinking back to Mikhail Bakhtins description of medieval carnivale in Europe as a release valve for the tensions that arise in a highly stratified society, we could also surmise that Halloween serves a similar function in the U.S. today. Currently economic inequality and poverty are at their greatest in the nations history. We are faced with an incessant onslaught of terrible news about global climate change, war, violence, discrimination and injustice,Ã and disease. In the midst of this, Halloween presents an attractive opportunity to take off our own identity, put on another, shake off our cares and concerns, and exist as someone else for an evening or two. Ironically, we may be further exacerbating the problems we face in the process, by perpetuating the hypersexualization of women and racism via costume, andÃ by handing our hard-earned money over to already wealthy corporations that exploit laborers and the environment to bring all the Halloween goods to us. But we sure have fun doing it.
Friday, February 14, 2020
The Arab-Israeli Conflict and its Correlation to Cold War Tensions - Term Paper Example History has been a direct witness to the fact that the powerful economies of the world, mainly the colonizers have redrawn the political boundaries of nations all around the globe, to serve their selfish needs. Even after the closure of the Second World War, British and French forces colonized the rest of the Mediterranean mainly, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries. When Jewish populations were recovering from the Nazi storm that ate up three fourths of their population, Britain took the decision to create a separate land that would be called home of Jews. Israel was created as a Jewish national state and was founded in 1948. Everyone hoped for a bright future of the new state as the timing was parallel to when freedom was granted to large countries like India (which attained independence in 1947). Britain has been criticized for the cruel treatment of ethnic cleansing that it originally meted out to the Jewish populations after the World War I. However, since other populations like Germans and Italians were also experiencing the brunt of the British Empire (Dimitrakis, 2012, 78), they also resorted to ethnic cleansing, a mindset that led to the Second World War and the Holocaust (Ogilvie & Miller, 2006, 67). BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-Jew and pro-Jew roles have been always criticized since, being a world power, it had initially done nothing to stop the ethnic cleansing of European countries. When the World War took immensely horrific shape, only then did Britain decide to take the side of the side that seemed to do the right thing, which in this context was the United States. The procedure of uprooting existing Palestinian populations to make way for a new land for the Jews had to always have a negative impact on the peace of the Arab world. The erstwhile Soviet Union was supportive of the new Jewish national state. However, when major Arab populations started
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Investigating the Environmental Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico - Essay Example This has seriously impacted the human values of not causing harm to others. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the complexity and link between sustainability issues including natural laws and human values; and determine the ways in which human systems and ecosystems are linked. and the ethics of not causing harm (George 242). Moral law is a free will approach which gives people the freedom to decide the way in which they should act. Ã¢â¬Å"Moral law theory is morally absolute, not relativistic, connecting human nature and ethical lifeÃ¢â¬ (Houser et al 22). Ethical laws are natural, that is they apply to all human beings, irrespective of individual customs and beliefs. Significantly, natural laws are non-consequential, and the consequences of an act are not brought into the ethical analysis. In this respect, it is evident that the oil spill causing extensive destruction is the consequence of installing the particular oil rig, and this outcome is not included in the ethical analysis of the situation. According to natural law, human life has absolute value, hence a single life cannot be sacrificed to save several lives. Thus, it is in contrast with the utilitarian view of cost and benefit, and of achieving the greatest good for the greatest number of people (Houser et al 22). Additionally, natural law requires that moral judgments should take into account the intentions of the persons performing the act. In the oil rig disaster, it is not possible to make any moral judgment of right or wrong based on the intentions of the British Petroleum Company, since the occurrence of such a magnitude, which has caused extensive financial losses for the company was not deliberately intended to happen by them. However, the element of carelessness towards ensuring thorough safety in all aspects appears to have played a part in the catastrophe. The ongoing leakage from the oil well in the Gulf of Mexico, 48 miles